Nelson, Eric. "More Stuff, Less Energy." Energy Efficiency
Wisconsin Energy Center Newsletter

Winter 2000, Volume 5, Number 1
Page 3

Compared to 1993, consumers are purchasing twice as many central air conditioners and four times as many room units. People are also buying more refrigerators than in previous years, and the units are bigger and have more features. Bigger doesn't necessarily mean more energy usage, however. "Refrigerators, for instance, are subject to federal minimum standards for efficiency," says Center project manager Richard Hasselman. Thanks to such standards – and voluntary efforts by manufacturers -- the appliances people shop for are more efficient than ever.

Timothy Somheil, “Time to Optimize
Appliance Magazine, October 1996

Page 29

Bauknecht introduced freestanding and built-in refrigerators using Aura Superinsulation, said to provide the consumer superior energy efficiency, environmental benefits, and maximized interior refrigerator space. The insulation supplier, Owens Corning, says the appliance offers enough extra space to store 50 more soft drink cans compared to other refrigerators with similar energy efficiency. Circle No. 202.

Sheahen, Thomas P. "CO-2 Tug-of-War."
Independent Energy magazine
April 1999

Page 4

Addiction -- it's a frightening word. Yet the most addictive man-made substance in the whole world goes unnoticed. That substance is electricity. Once hooked on electricity, nobody has kicked the habit." But what are its side effects?

To meet the growing world demand for electricity, tremendous amounts of fossil fuels (mostly coal) are burned every day in power plants. The large amount of CO-2 released in the burning of fossil fuels raises the question of possible climate change due to the greenhouse effect. Infrared radiation, which would normally escape into space, tends to be trapped by a blanket of CO-2.

Pennsylvania Power and Light (PP&L) “How Conquering the Andes Illuminated the Jungles of Peru.”
Helping Build a Smaller, Wiser World.” ­Advertisement in Energy User News June 2000
Page 5

It was a task noteworthy for overcoming several insurmountable obstacles—a PPL trademark—thereby providing electricity to a region that desperately needed a reliable source of power. A 250-mile transmission line as constructed that stretched from Aguaytia, in the central jungle region of Peru, all the way to the coast north of Lima.

It took 14 months, $282 million and the inspiration, ingenuity and dogged stamina of hundreds. We waited for the heavens to open and the rains (40 feet in 3 months) to raise the Amazon; only then could barges loaded with turbines and generators float upriver to Pucallpa.

Kunstler, James Howard  Home from Nowhere
New York, 1996
Simon & Schuster
ISBN 0684811960

Page 101

This results in a house that is built like a television set. Only the front matters, and it only matters insofar as it can broadcast some cartoonish image of what we want others to think about it—for instance, that it vaguely conjures up Scarlett O’Hara’s plantation house, or William Shakespeare’s birthplace. The windowless sides of the building are of no consequence. Often the sides are clad in a cheaper material than the front, and the completely incompatible with it.

Erickson, Rita, J. Paper or Plastic?: Energy, Environment, and Consumerism in Sweden and America
Westport: 1997

ISBN 0275957667
Page 140

Ultimately, cultural analysis cannot support the argument that the contents of habit, practice, lifestyle, utility or servicing are unimportant (i.e. that they simply need to be made more efficient across the board). An attempt to take that turn was made in the 1980s, when energy research broke with its historic concern for conservation, and adopted an interest in efficiency.

Pig, Scott., Eilers, Mark, and John Reed. “Behavioral Aspects of Lighting and Occupancy Sensors in Private Offices, ACEEE 1998 Summer Study.”
Page 8.161

This paper examines people’s behavior as it relates to lighting usage in private offices in a university office building. Sixty-three private offices were monitored at one-minute intervals for room occupancy and lighting usage over an 11-month period in 1995. Walk-through observations were also conducted, and two written surveys were administered. Four lighting control configurations were tested; two configurations used manual dual-level switching, and two configurations used automated daylighting controls. All rooms had occupancy sensors, however these were disconnected for one group of offices to provide a control group.

Sanders, Scott Russell. “Beneath the Smooth Skin of America.”
Ressurgence magazine


At night on this journey you sleep in your favourite chain of motels, where you know the colour of the bedspread and the design of the wallpaper before opening the door, and where you watch on cable television your customary shows. Arriving by and by at your destination—perhaps in another suburb where your father’s family now lives, at their third or fourth address, or in a condominium where your parents have briefly settled—

Anderson, Victor. Energy Efficiency Policies
Routledge, New York: 1993
ISBN 0415 086965

Pages 30-35

1  Consumers are far better informed about the prices of consumer durables than about their energy efficiency and the costs of running them. In many cases consumers would be willing to behave 'rationally' and save money, as well as energy, by paying for more efficient consumer durables thereby saving money on running costs, if they had the information relevant to such a choice.

2  This tendency is encouraged by the relative invisibility of some costs even after the product has been bought. In particular, the cost of electricity and gas is often difficult for consumers to discover. In some cases, metering may not even distinguish between separate flats in a block or large house, and certainly is unlikely to distinguish between energy use by different appliances (electricity bills in the UK, for example, do not itemise the charges so that consumers can see how much they are paying to run each appliance), tariffs are often complex and therefore difficult to bear in mind when deciding on energy use, and bills may be paid automatically through direct debit, perhaps only annually.

JAKARTA POST, “Energy efficiency called for to protect environment” 10/22/1998

JAKARTA (JP). “It’s totally wrong to think that bigger and more advanced technology will use more energy, either fuel or electricity,” Emy Perdanahari of the Ministry of Mines and Energy’s directorate general of electricity and energy development said.

In the late 1970s households consumed most energy in relation to their productivity but the trend later shifted to industry followed by transportation in line with the country’s development and industrialization, Emy said. “Now industry leads in the consumption of energy, followed by the transportation sector and then households,” she said.

In 1997 Indonesian offices used an average of 333 kWh per square meter while the average for the region since 1992 was 246 kWh per square meter.

Ausubel, Jesse H. "Where is Energy Going."
The Industrial Physicist
October 26, 1999

Page 19

So, we must decarbonize, favoring natural gas strongly everywhere and preparing the way for hydrogen, which in turn demands a restart of nuclear construction. Hydrogen and electricity can cleanly power a hundred megacities. The global energy system has been evolving in this direction but perhaps not fast enough, especially for those most anxious about climatic change. With business as usual, the decarbonization of the energy system will require a century or so.

The year 2000 will be remembered as the time of the sanctification of gas. But Saint Methane is only an apostle for hydrogen, the forever fuel. Already glimpsed, hydrogen will gradually gain its worldwide following, beginning soon, in the dawning of the nuclear millennium.