Womack, James P. Lean Thinking: Banish Waste and Create Wealth in Your Corporation
New York: Simon and Schuster, 1996, ISBN 0684810352
Page 18

Few firms are aggressively promoting this definition of value because the airlines and airframe builders start their thinking with extraordinarily costly assets in the form of large aircraft; the engineering knowledge, tooling, and production facilities to make more large aircraft; and massive airport complexes. Old-fashioned “efficiency” thinking suggests that the best way to make use of these assets and technologies is to get larger batches of people on larger planes and to do this by sending ever more passengers through the expensive sorting centers.

Mishra, Karen E., Gretchen M. Spreitzer, and Aneil K. Mishra. “Preserving Employee Morale during Downsizing.
Sloan Management Review Winter 1998
Page 84

The promised payoffs of downsizing have been mixed at best. One study found that (1) a 10 percent reduction in people resulted in only a 1.5 percent reduction in costs, (2) the average downsized firm’s stock price rose 4.7 percent over three years as compared to 34.3 percent for matched firms that did not downsize, (3) profitability was up in only half the firms that downsized, and (4) the results on productivity were not conclusive. The financial costs often incurred by downsizing firms explain some of the mixed findings.

Honeywell, Annual Report 1995
Page 30

Work force reduction costs primarily include severance costs related to involuntary termination programs instituted to improve efficiency and reduce costs.

Neuberger, Doris: University of Rostock, Germany; doctoral dissertation
1989 and Habilitation 1993 supervised by Professor Neumann in , Dennis C. Mueller, editor. Competition,
Efficiency, and Welfare.
Essays in Honor of Manfred Neumann.
Boston: Kluwer Academic Publishers 1999.
ISBN 0792382935
Pages 181 and 183

Empirical studies about bank mergers in the US show that the potential for cost efficiency improvements from mergers are generally not realized. Event studies on the short-term reaction of the merging banks" share prices to the announcement of the merger find only small positive or even negative effects. Compared to the results from event and outcome studies for industrial mergers, this points to significant negative long-run effects of bank mergers….

Accenture Pursues Efficiency

With outsourcing growth soaring, firm taps Mercury as one tool in delivering services more effectively


By Marianne Kolbasuk McGee, InformationWeek May 3, 2004

http://www.informationweek.com/story/showArticle.jhtml?articleID=19400003

Outsourcing is Accenture’s fastest-growing business, increasing at more than a 30% clip over the past year. With that growing demand, the company decided to standardize the portfolio-management tools it uses to help manage clients’ projects and report on its service-level performance.

Wim Zweers and Jan J. Boersema,  Ecology, Technology and Culture : Essays in Environmental Philosophy
Great Britain: Paul & Co Pub Consortium, 1994
ISBN: 1874267111
Page 194

The ideology of the infinity of human needs (satisfied to a continually greater extent by economic activity) stands opposed to a reality of ever more rapid expansion of wants relative to the possibilities of satisfying them—the ‘means’. It is evident that this type of dynamics turns the process of accumulation into a process of hopeless but ever accelerating growth, with increasing environmental pressure as a consequence.

Page 202

‘Doing more with less’, one of the main slogans of Our common future, could, after a shortlived profit, lead to long term accelerated destruction of both humanity and nature....

Zeldin, Theodore, Philosophical Anthropology
New York: 1994, ISBN 006017160X
Pages 247, 469

In the past, hospitals seldom employed physicians, so long as they were essentially alms-houses. An apprentice surgeon might examine new entrants, but only to exclude those who were unsuitable, because too sick. The nurses concentrated on feeding the patients, for that was what the poor seemed most in need of. However, in the late eighteenth century doctors protested that overeating was not necessarily the way to recover strength, and it was from this time that they gradually began taking over control of hospitals, transforming them into facilities for medical research, concerned with the technical cure of diseases, rather than with the spiritual needs of the patient.

Worster, Donald. The Wealth of Nature
New York: Oxford University Press, Inc., 1993
ISBN 0195076249
Page 179

Any suggestion that nature has an intrinsic order that must be preserved has been viewed by many industrial leaders as a serious threat. They have had another, rival order to create—an economic one. Industrialism has sought not the preservation but the total domination of the natural order and its radical a transformation into consumer goods. The environment has been seen to exist mainly for the purpose of supplying an endless line of those goods and absorbing the byproducts of waste and pollution. Whatever has not been produced by some industry and placed on the market for sale has had little value.

Twain, Mark. The Adventures of Tom Sawyer
New York: 1982. ISBN 0521262208
Page 20

Tom gave up the brush with reluctance in his face but alacrity in his heart. And while the late steamer “Big Missouri” worked and seated in the sun, the retired artist sat on a barrel in the shade close by, dangled his legs, munched his apple, and planned the slaughter of more innocents. There was no lack of material; boys happened along every little while; they came to jeer, but remained to whitewash. By the time Ben was fagged out, Tom had traded the next chance to Billy Fisher for a kite, in good repair; and when he played out Johnny Miller bought in for a dead rat and a string to swing it with—and so on, and so on, hour after hour.

Hochschild, Arlie Russell. The Time Bind : When Work Becomes Home and Home Becomes Work
New York: Henry Holt, 1997
ISBN 0805044701
Page 204

The ascendancy of the corporation in its battle with the family has been aided in recent years by the rise of company cultural engineering and, in particular, the shift from Frederick Taylor’s principles of scientific management to the Total Quality principles originally set out by Charles Deming. Under the influence of a Taylorist worldview, the manager’s job was to coerce the worker’s mind and body, not to appeal to his heart. The Taylorized worker was deskilled, replaceable, cheap, and as a consequence felt bored, demeaned, and unappreciated.

Sartwell, Crispin. Obscenity, Anarchy, Reality
New York: 1996
ISBN 0791429075
Pages 110-11

The master not only shackles and exploits the slave, he also protects the slave: The classic argument in favor of slavery is that these dolts, when out of our control, will be defenseless. What stands in need of protection is weak; what offers protection to the weak is strong. We, evolution’s crowning achievement, are charged because we are powerful with protecting the earth by our power from our power....

Robert W. Fogel, The Moral Problem of Slavery Penguin Books
Canada: 1989 ISBN 0393018873
Page 411

In and of itself, economic or technological efficiency is neither moral nor immoral. The virtue of an efficient technique depends exclusively on its moral values, rather than economic, political, or scientific achievements, are the supreme guides for human behavior. When we celebrate such technological advances as the blast furnace, electricity, and medical surgery it is not because they are intrinsically good but because they have usually served well the great ethical goals of humankind. Nevertheless, each of these innovations has been used at various times for demonic ends. Slavery was a somewhat different case. It was intrinsically evil because its productive efficiency

Sikorski, Wade.  Modernity and Technology: Harnessing the Earth to the Slavery of Man
Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press, 1993
Pages 9, 125 and 135

Never stopping, never collecting itself, never asking why, reason jumps from one solution to the next, forever seeking more effi-cient or economical equations, just because they are more “effi-cient” or “economical.” It is the exclusive mark of our age, the source of its progress and its mastery over everything....

The slave is but a tool, a mere means evoking no such emotions. To be free, then, is to be not governed by the necessities of the instrument, to be not a means beyond the care of love, and to be spared the doom of utility. Good husbandry, good housewifery, each in its own way, is a calling to care for the dwelling place and the people that dwell there.

Shorris, Earl. A nation of Salesmen
New York. 1994. ISBN 0393036723
Pages 18 and 232

Advertising, I said to anyone who would listen, is not immoral, except as waste is immoral, for advertising is no more than a waste of time, effort, and money by people who might otherwise produce useful or even beautiful work. Advertising is largely useless, I said, an inefficient way to pay for the daily newspaper. It is closer to bad art than to good business. When critics argued that advertising caused people to buy things they didn’t want or need, I laughed, and pointed out to them that the best sales job the advertising business had ever done was to convince its clients and critics that advertising could control people’s desires. In my best Socratic fashion, I asked whether hungry people would desire food if it were not advertised….

Jeremy Seabrook, The Myth Of The Market Black Rose Books
New York: 1991 ISBN 1895431085
Page 188

If it had been the purpose of humanity on earth to bring to the edge of ruin the planet itself, no more efficient mechanism could have been invented than the market system itself, with its prodigious use of energy and materials in the sublime mission of replacing as much of human activity with commodities and the monetary transactions that attend them.

Tibor Scitovsky, The Joyless Economy
New York, 1976: ISBN 0195073460
Page 207

Practically every innovation that raised productivity and contributed to economic development did so by removing one more need to exercise human skill -- and one more opportunity to derive satisfaction from its exercise.

Charles A. Reich, The Greening of America
New York: 1970 71117689
Page 27

Soon after Americans began their experiment in a new community, the assumptions upon which the nation was based were threatened by the rise of two powerful forces, worldwide in influence: the competitive market economy and scientific technique. The forces came as benefactors (as in large part they were), offering men in all countries the possibility of liberation from static toil.

Christopher Plant and Judith Plant, Putting Power In Its Place
New Society, Philadelphia: 1992
ISBN 1550921584
Page 12

One of the assumptions underlying the logic of a globalized economy is that a global system which is free from humanly-made impediments to business activity will be maximally efficient in its use of human labor and materials. Global competition puts added pressure on corporations to increase the efficiency of their operations because competition is, in the absence of national boundaries, greatly increased by the presence in the market of producers from all over the world—not merely from within the country in question. This competition puts additional pressure on corporations to reduce their costs of production and/or expand their markets.

Lewis Mumford, The Pentagon of Power: The Myth of the Machine
New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1970
Pages 127 and 178

No one questions the immense benefits already conferred in many departments by sciences efficient methodology: but what one must challenge is the value of a system so detached from other human needs and human purposes that the process itself goes on automatically without any visible goal except that of keeping the corporate apparatus itself in a state of power-making, profit yielding productivity. What is now called ‘Research and Development’ is a circular process….

Philadelphia Inquirer,  “Do not believe that less is more --The big squeeze of the consumer is on. But we all know good businesses”
By Donella H. Meadows
Opinion, Saturday, July 26, 1997

I don’t travel by air all that often, so I can’t get used to the squeezed-in seats. Every time I get in a plane, it seems they’ve shaved another half-inch from the seat width and the rows are an inch closer together. When the person in front of you leans back these days, his or her head ends up right in your lap. The only time I watch TV is when I stay in hotels, which is about as often as I fly, so I am surprised by the rising ratio of advertising to program. Recently, I tried to watch a movie, but it was more than half ads.