Sclove, Richard, Democracy And Technology
New York: 1995. ISBN 089862861X
What of the concern that strong democracy could be grossly inefficient—wasteful of time and hazardous to prosperity? As with competing forms of social organization, there are such risks. But this concern may also involve misconstruing the meaning of efficiency and the nature of strong democracy.
An action is efficient if it accomplishes its end without the unnecessary expenditure of scarce resources. However, in a strong democracy social ends are not simply given. They must be formulated via a strong democratic process. Thus, rather than conceivably impairing economic efficiency, democracy is a precondition for legitimately specifying the ends with respect to which efficiency is defined.